Trends, periodicities and ENSO relationship of New Zealand rainfall


  • R. P. KANE



El-Nino, ENSO, QBO, Rainfall, New Zealand


The rainfall series for six homogeneous regions of New Zealand for 1901-1996 were not well intercorrelated (maximum correlation +0.6). Rainfalls were almost equally spread in all months. Trends (total changes over about 90 years) were ~0, +11, +2, -6, +1, +8 (±~4)% for the six regions. For seasonal rainfall, large trends were        -19% for DJF and +16% for MAM of region 1. Spectral analysis showed peaks in QBO (Quasi-biennial oscillations, 2-3 years) range and near 3, 4-5, 6-9, 10-11 years and higher periodicities. ENSO relationships were not clear-cut. In individual El Niño events, only the very strong events of 1972-73, 1982-83 and 1997-98 were associated with widespread droughts in New Zealand, while the 1940-41 El Niño event was associated with excess rainfall. During the durations of all other El Niño events, New Zealand rainfalls were excess or deficit for a few months, followed by deficit or excess for the next few months (oscillatory nature), similar in all regions in some events, dissimilar in others, with no preference for any season. During La Niña (anti-El Niño) events also, oscillations were observed.




How to Cite

R. P. . . KANE, “Trends, periodicities and ENSO relationship of New Zealand rainfall”, MAUSAM, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 9–18, Jan. 2002.



Research Papers