Variability of Indian summer monsoon: Relationship with surface air temperature anomalies over northern hemisphere
Keywords:Indian summer monsoon, Northern hemisphere temperature, Inter-annual variability Teleconnections, Long-range forecasting, Correlations, ENSO
Thirty year (1950-79) time series of Monsoon Index (MI) is correlated with the gridded surface air temperature data over northern hemisphere land at various time lags of months (i.e., months preceding concurrent and succeeding to the monsoon season) to identify tele-connections of monsoon with the northern hemisphere surface air temperature anomalies. .
Out of three key regions identified which show statistically significant relationship of monsoon rainfall, two regions are in the higher latitudinal belt of 40oN- 70oN over North America and Eurasia which show positive correlations with temperatures during northern winter particularly during January and February. The third region is located over northwest India and adjoining Pakistan, where the maximum positive correlation is observed to occur during the pre-li1onsoon months of April and May. These relationships suggest that cooler northern hemisphere during the preceding seasons of winter/spring over certain key regions are generally associated with below normal summer monsoon rainfall over India and vice-versa which could be useful predictors for long-range forecasting of monsoon.
There are two large regions in the northern tropics, namely, Asian and African monsoons whose temperatures reveal strong negative correlations with monsoon rainfall during the seasons concurrent and subsequent to the summer monsoon season. However, persistence of this relationship for longer period of about two seasons after the monsoon, suggests the dominant influence of ENSO (El. Nino-Southern Oscillation) on tropical climate.
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