Modeling rainfall extremes along the coastal and Northern parts of Ghana


  • WILHEMINA ADOMA PELS Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, Kwame Nkrumah Uni. of Science and Tech., Kumasi, PMB UPO, Ghana
  • SARALEES NADARAJAH School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, UK



Information criteria, Generalized Pareto Distribution, Generalized Extreme Value, Block Maxima decluster peaks.


The main objective of the study was to determine the appropriate distribution for extreme rainfall along the coastal and northern sectors of Ghana. For stakeholders and policymakers to make appropriate risk-mitigating measures to lessen the damage caused by flood and drought, it is necessary to make proper inferences about extreme rainfall. In this study, we used both the multivariate and univariate extreme value data analysis approaches. The Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) with the Block Maxima approach and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) with the Peak over the threshold (that is all excesses and decluster peaks approaches) were used in this study. Historical gridded monthly maximum rainfall data from 1970 to 2020 were obtained from the Climatic Research Unit and were grouped as the coastal and northern stations. The Maximum Likelihood Estimation method was used to estimate the model parameters, and both the unit root test and the Mann-Kendall tests were used to test for trend in the data. With the multivariate extreme modelling approach, the logistic bivariate GEV model was chosen as the “best” model. However, the dependence value was 0.965, so the extreme rainfall should be modelled independently using the univariate extreme value approaches. Hence, based on the information criteria and analysis of deviance approaches, the GEV distribution was considered the “best” fit for the extreme rainfall dataset for the northern part of Ghana. In contrast, the GPD distribution was the “best” fit for the coastal station. Comparatively, for the volume of rainfall in the year 2020, the extreme rainfall is expected to be higher in the coastal station of Ghana in the next two years. Also, extreme rainfall in 2 years would not exceed the maximum occurrence of rainfall (279.267), which happened in September 2020 at the northern station of Ghana.




How to Cite

S. TWUMASIANKRAH, W. A. . PELS, and S. NADARAJAH, “Modeling rainfall extremes along the coastal and Northern parts of Ghana”, MAUSAM, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 433–442, Apr. 2024.



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