Development of 1961-1990 monthly surface climatology of India and patterns of differences of some meteorological parameters with respect to the 1951-1980 climatology
Keywords:Climatology, Normals, Maximum temperature, Minimum temperature, Rainfall, Rainy days, Total cloud, Relative humidity, Pressure
Climate normals are used to describe the average climatic conditions of a particular place and are computed by National Meteorological Services of all countries. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) recommends that all countries prepare climate normals for the 30-year periods ending in 1930, 1960, 1990 and so on, for which the WMO World Climate Normals are published. Recently, Climatological Normals for the period 1961-1990 have been prepared by India Meteorological Department (IMD) which will change the baseline of comparison from 1951-1980. In this paper, preparation of the 30-year Climatological Normals of India for the period 1961 to 1990 and spatial patterns of differences of annual means of temperatures, relative humidity, clouds, rainfall and wind speed from the previous normals (1951-1980) are documented.
The changes from earlier climatological normals indicate increase in annual means of maximum temperature, relative humidity and decrease in annual means of minimum temperature, cloud amount, rainfall, rainy days and wind speed over large parts of the country during 1961-1990. The spatial patterns of changes in dry bulb temperatures and relative humidity are complementary over most parts of the country. Compared with 1951-1980 climatology, there are large scale decreases in annual mean rainfall, rainy days and wind speed over most parts of the country during 1961-1990. The decrease in wind speed may be partly due to changes in exposure conditions of observatories due to urbanization.
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