Inter and intra-seasonal, variation of thermodynamic parameters of the atmosphere over coastal Tamilnadu during northeast monsoon
Keywords:Northeast monsoon, Southwest monsoon, Onset, Withdrawal,, Coastal Tamilnadu, Thermodynamic structure, Moisture flux, Liquid water content (LWC), Lapse rate,, Energy, Airmass.
The thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere over coastal Tamilnadu during the northeast monsoon season has been studied in detail based on the daily 0000 UTC upper air data between 1000 and 500 hPa levels of Madras for October-January for the l0 year period 1976-77 to 1985-86. Normal upper air soundings have been computed for dry and wet spells of northeast monsoon and for the brief period of southwest monsoon prior to northeast monsoon onset. The moisture flux crossing Madras and the liquid water content over Madras have been computed for various categories of monsoon activity. It has been shown that the onset of easterlies over Madras is accompanied by a cooling of 1C of the atmosphere over Madras at all levels upto 500 hPa. An east to west moisture flux of 21.1 x 108 metric tons per day across one degree wall over Madras has been found to cross coast during typical wet spell of northeast monsoon. The moisture flux crossing coast for good northeast monsoon and also the normal flux computed for the period of study compared fairly well with the moisture flux crossing west coast during southwest monsoon obtained in various other studies. The energy of an air column over coastal Tamilnadu was found to decrease subsequent to the onset of northeast monsoon. Analysis of variation of liquid water content revealed that even during deficit rainfall years there was considereable amount of low level moisture in the atmosphere. Neither during dryspells of northeast monsoon nor after its retreat was there any clear sign of spreading of continental air mass over coastal Tamilnadu.
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