Indian Ocean Dipole : Assessing its impacts on the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) across North East India
Keywords:Dipole Mode Index, Indian Ocean Dipole, Indian Summer monsoon rainfall, Sea surface temperatures, North East India
The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), a climatic anomaly, results in sustained sea surface temperature (SST) variations between tropical western and eastern Indian Ocean temperatures. In this study, we studied the variations to inculcate the teleconnections between IOD and Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) distribution across the country for the period 1960-2020 for all the three phases of ISMR. We analyzed rainfall, SST and low-level wind circulation anomalies for the above mentioned time horizon. Positive IOD events noticeably resulted in increase in summer monsoon rainfall distribution across the country respectively while its negative counterpart led to decrease in rainfall except for the commencement phase of ISMR. The variations in SST, wind circulation and moisture movement processes across the Indian Ocean characterize significant changes in rainfall during the positive and negative phases of IOD especially during the recent decades (1991-2020). The recent time horizon also witnesses enhanced low-level equatorial jets (LEJ) across the equatorial Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea during the positive IOD events as compared to the prior decades (1960-1990). The effect of moisture convergence zone is also analyzed which results in above rainfall conditions across northeastern and central India. Conversely, negative IOD events were found to subdue any such moisture movement mechanisms. Furthermore, and additional investigation to analyze the effect of IOD on the retreating/withdrawal monsoon across northeast India has been done and it has been observed that a stronger positive IOD is detrimental to the seasonal rainfall (May- September) over North East India (-0.7 one month lag correlation). Furthermore, the DMI index of April-May presented a clear indication of monsoon activity over the area during the withdrawal or retreating phase of the summer monsoon, i.e., during September.
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