Managing impacts of extreme weather events on crop productivity in mountain agriculture
Keywords:Extreme weather, Crop productivity, Impact management, Gramin Krishi Mausam Sewa
Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes both of which take place on global and regional scales with varying magnitude. Agriculture is most vulnerable to global warming as compared to other enterprises. The studies conducted in mountains of Himachal Pradesh showed increase in both maximum and minimum temperature range from 0.4 to 2.4 °C, decrease of annual rainfall amount from 10 to 40 per cent and change of weather parameters. The investigations with respect to climate, the impact of increasing temperature and climate variability showed shift of apple crop to higher elevations in H.P. The simulated studies on elevated carbon dioxide levels of 50 to 100 ppm as extreme climatic events from existing 370 ppm showed increase in yield of maize (3.0 to 5.4%), wheat (3.6 to 7.3%), rice (7.6 to 20.8%), soybean (1.3 to 3.5) and mustard (4.0 to 6.0 %) both in rainfed and irrigated conditions under different agro-climatic conditions of Himachal Pradesh. The simulated studies on extreme events of 1 and 2 °C rise showed decrease of maize and soybean yield whereas rice, wheat and mustard showed increase in yield due to rise in temperature. The 10 to 20 per cent decrease in rainfall showed less reduction in the yield of maize and soybean under sub-humid and sub-temperate agro climatic region. The delay of planting windows according to rainfall pattern in the region under present conditions proved beneficial for managing impacts of extreme weather events. The 20 years simulated results showed that delay of sowing by 10 days in both agro climatic zone of H.P. offsets 1 and 2oC rise in temperature on crop productivity of maize, soybean and wheat. Similarly, 20 years simulation indicated benefit in yield of wheat and mustard where sowing was delayed upto first fortnight of November.
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