Long term rainfall variability and trend analysis in lower Shivaliks of Punjab, India
Keywords:Rainfall variability, Mann Kendall test, Sen’s slope, Regression analysis, Lower Shivaliks
The trend analysis of historical rainfall data on monthly, annual and seasonal basis for three locations in lower Shivaliks of Punjab, viz., Patiala-ki-Rao (1982-2015), Ballowal Saunkhri (1987-2015) and Saleran (1984-2017) has been done in the present study using linear regression model, Mann Kendall test and Sen’s slope. Further, the data for annual and seasonal rainfall and rainy days has also been analyzed on quindecennial basis, i.e., for the period of 1986-2000 and 2001-2015. The analysis of data showed that annual rainfall in the region ranged from 1000 to 1150 mm. The trend analysis of the data shows that the monthly rainfall is decreasing at Patiala-ki-Rao and Saleran, however, the trend was significant for May at Patiala-ki-Rao; and in March and November at Saleran. At Ballowal Saunkhri, the decreasing trend is observed from May to October, however, the trend is significant only in August. The decrease in annual and monsoon rainfall is about 13 to 17 mm and 12 to 13 mm per year respectively at three locations in lower Shivaliks of Punjab. The highest annual (1600-2000 mm) and monsoon (1500-1800 mm) rainfall during the entire study period was recorded in the year 1988 at three locations. The decadal analysis of the data shows below normal rainfall during April to October. The analysis of the rainfall and rainy days on monthly, annual and seasonal averages of 15 year basis showed that both rainfall and rainy days have decreased during the 2001-2015 as compared to 1986-2000 during all the seasons of the year.
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