Long term monthly and inter-seasonal weather variability analysis for the lower Shivalik foothills of Punjab
Keywords:Climate change, Weather variability, Trend analysis
This paper aims to study the long-term trends in different weather parameters, i.e., temperature, rainfall, rainy days, sunshine hours, evaporation, relative humidity and temperature over Lower Shivalik foothills of Punjab. The daily weather data of about 35 years from agrometeorological observatory of Regional Research Station Ballowal Saunkhri representing Lower Shivalik foothills had been used for trend analysis for kharif (May - October), rabi (November - April), winter (January - February), pre-monsoon (March - May), monsoon (June - September) and post monsoon (October - December) season. The linear regression method has been used to estimate the magnitude of change per year and its coefficient of determination, whose statistical significance was checked by the F test. The annual maximum temperature, morning and evening relative humidity has increased whereas rainfall, evaporation sunshine hours and wind speed has decreased significantly at this region. No significant change in annual minimum temperature and diurnal range has been observed. Monthly maximum temperature revealed significant increase except January, June and December, whereas, monthly minimum temperature increased significantly for February, March and October and decreased for June. Among different seasons, maximum temperature increased significantly for all seasons except winter season, whereas, minimum temperature increased significantly for kharif and post monsoon season only. The evaporation, sunshine hours and wind speed have also decreased and relative humidity decreased significantly at this region. Significant reduction in kharif, monsoon and post monsoon rainfall has been observed at Lower Shivalik foothills. As the region lacks assured irrigation facilities so decreasing rainfall and change in the other weather parameters will have profound effects on the agriculture in this region so there is need to develop climate resilient agricultural technologies.
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