Variability and trends in extreme rainfall over India
Keywords:Extreme rainfall events, Extreme rainfall intensity, Significant trend, Increasing trend
This study has been attempted to investigate the seasonal and annual trends and variations in the occurrence of extreme rainfall over different Indian region and India as a whole. Trends and variations are examined on the basis of following parameters (i) frequency and magnitude of extreme rainfall intensity (ERI) and its contribution in total rainfall (ii) highest rainfall events (iii) frequency of extreme rainfall events and days (iv) frequency of rainfall events and days with daily rainfall above 100 mm and 200 mm in a grid box (1° × 1°) over different Indian regions and India as a whole. Daily gridded rainfall data from India Meteorological Department (IMD) available at 1° × 1° resolution has been used to examine trends and variations associated with extreme rainfall events. Based on the long term 95 and 99 percentile values of daily total /maximum rainfall as a threshold for extreme rainfall intensity/events of category 1 and category 2 respectively, the trends and variations in above mentioned parameters are analyzed for the periods 1951-2007, 1951-1980 and 1981-2007.
The magnitude of highest intensity rainfall is increased over country as a whole and over peninsular India; it is found to be increased by 1% during 1981-2007 as compared to period 1951-1980. The frequency of extreme rainfall intensity (ERI) days of category 1 is found to be significant increasing (0.4 days/decade) over north central region and significant decreasing trend is found over north east region (0.5 days/decade) during the pre-monsoon season. The magnitude of 24 hours highest rainfall in a grid box is found to be significant increasing over all regions under consideration except over north east and south peninsular regions. Over the last ten years period of the present study, most of the 24 hours highest rainfall events in a grid box are seen over west peninsular region. Generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution fitted with annual highest rainfall event over the country as a whole and over different Indian region indicates an increase in magnitude of most probable 24 hours highest rainfall in a grid box during second half of the study period over north central region of the country. Analysis also reveals an increase in frequency and severity of extreme rainfall over north west, north central and west peninsular regions during the period of 1981-2007 as compared to 1950-1980.
Annual frequency of days and events with extreme rainfall of both categories is increased most significantly over country during the period of present study (1951-2007). Significant increasing trends in frequency of days with extreme rainfall of both categories is noticed only during the monsoon season while extreme rainfall events showed increasing trends during monsoon and winter season over country as a whole. Number of days and events with daily rainfall in any grid box above 100 mm and 200 mm is observed to be significantly increased over the country. Out of six regions, significant increasing trends in annual number of days with rainfall above 100 mm in a grid box is observed over north central and north east regions and for rainfall above 200 mm significant increase is observed over north west and north central regions.
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