Structure and properties of summer monsoon stationary wave over southern Asia: An observational study
Keywords:Monsoon stationary wave, Structure of stationary wave, Properties of stationary wave, Stationary wave, Monsoon depressions
A study of ten-year (1976-1985) mean July climatology of southern Asia and adjoining ocean areas confirms the presence of a well-defined stationary wave, believed to be due mainly to land-sea thermal contrast over the region, in the fields of several meteorological variables. The wave extends laterally over about 10 degrees of latitude with maximum intensity along about 20° N and vertically from surface to about 300 hPa. Its zonal wavelength is about 2000-2500 km and its amplitude in the field of zonal anomaly of temperature and meridional component of wind is 1 oC and 4ms-l respectively. The trough-ridge system of the wave appears to tilt eastward with height from surface to about 700 hPa and westward aloft up to about 300 hPa, while the warmest-coldest anomaly system appears to tilt eastward all the way from surface to about 300 hPa. A phase difference appears to exist between the geopotential and the temperature fields in both the lower and the upper tropospheres. The aforesaid zonal-vertical tilt of the monsoon trough and phase difference between the geopotential and the temperature fields appears to be compatible, through thermal advection, With a direct conversion of eddy available potential energy into eddy kinetic energy via a west-east (clockwise) overturning with warm air rising in the west and cold air sinking in the east in the case of the eastward-tilting lower-tropospheric trough and an east-west (anti-clockwise) overturning with warm air rising in the east and cold air sinking in the west in the case of the westward-tilting middle and upper-tropospheric trough, An enhancement of the thermal advection and hence the vertical circulation may occasionally lead to development of the trough into a I(JW or depression. However, the question of development of the trough and physical factors, which may contribute to such development, needs to be examined by further study.
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