Performance of land surface schemes on simulation of land falling tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal using ARW model


  • PUSHPENDRA JOHARI Gautam Buddha University
  • SUSHIL KUMAR Gautam Buddha University
  • DIPAK KUMAR SAHU Indian Meteorological Department, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India



Land falling Tropical Cyclone, ARW, Land Surface Models, Track Error, CTE, ATE


The present study encompasses the performance of Land Surface Model (LSM) physics on simulation of Tropical Cyclones (TCs) key characteristics - track, mean sea level pressure (MSLP), maximum sustained wind (MSW) and rainfall. The impact of four LSM schemes - Thermal Diffusion, Noah, RUC and Noah-MP, is evaluated for the simulation of Severe Cyclonic Storm (SCS) ‘Vardah’ that crossed Tamil Nadu coast, near Chennai on 12 December, 2016 and Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storms (ESCS) ‘Fani’ that crossed Odisha coast, close to Puri on 03 May, 2019.

                For this purpose, the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW) model, configured with a single domain of 9 km horizontal resolution covering the Bay of Bengalis considered. The initial and lateral boundary conditions to the model integration are taken from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Final Analysis (FNL). The model simulated track is verified with India Meteorological Department (IMD) observed track for both the cases. The model simulated MSW and MSLP at the landfall location is validated with IMD best estimation along with fifth generation European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-analysis (ERA5) products. The rainfall associated with both the cyclones are compared with ERA5 and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) rainfall for its validation.


                The track of TCs Vardah and Fani are well simulated with all the four land surface schemes with reasonable accuracy in landfall position and time of landfall of the systems. The Along Track Error (ATE) and Cross Track Error (CTE) are minimal for the unified Noah LSM scheme. The landfall position error (about 2 km only) is significantly improved with the unified Noah scheme. In case of rainfall forecast, LSMs tend to overestimate the rainfall during landfall of both systems. It is also noticed that overestimation is more towards inland than on the coast. Out of all four LSMs, rainfall estimation from the RUC is closest to the GPM and ERA5 rainfall estimates during landfall. In addition to this, RUC scheme intensifies the cyclones in terms of MSLP and MSW during the landfall of the system as compared to the other parameterization schemes.




How to Cite

P. JOHARI, S. KUMAR, S. PATTANAYAK, D. K. SAHU, and A. ROUTRAY, “Performance of land surface schemes on simulation of land falling tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal using ARW model”, MAUSAM, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 1155–1172, Oct. 2023.



Research Papers