Evaluation of heavy rainfall warning over India during summer monsoon season
Keywords:Heavy rainfall, Monsoon, Forecast verification
India Meteorological Department (IMD) issues heavy rainfall warning for a meteorological sub-division when the expected 24 hours rainfall over any rain gauge station in that sub-division is likely to be 64.5 mm or more. Though these warnings have been provided since the inception of IMD, a few attempts have been made for quantitative evaluation of these warnings. Hence, a study is undertaken to verify the heavy rainfall warnings over 36 meteorological sub-divisions of India during monsoon months (June-September) and season as a whole. For this purpose, data of recent 5 years (2002-2006) has been taken into consideration. In this connection, the day when heavy rainfall is recorded over at least one station in a sub-division, has been considered as a heavy rainfall day for that sub-division.
There is a large spatial and temporal variability in skill scores of heavy rainfall warnings over India during summer monsoon season. Considering the monsoon season as a whole, the Heidke Skill Score (HSS) is relatively less (<0.20) over the regions with less frequent heavy rainfall like Lakshadweep, southeast peninsula, Vidarbha, Marathwada, Jammu & Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram & Tripura (NMMT). It is higher (> 0.50) over Konkan & Goa, Madhya Maharashtra and Gujarat region. There has been improvement in the forecast skill with gradual increase in the critical success index and Heidke skill score over the years mainly due to the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models' guidance available to the forecasters. However, the false alarm rate and missing rate are still very high (> 0.50), especially over many sub-divisions of northwest India, southeast peninsula and NMMT.
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