Tropospheric temperature variation over India and links with the Indian summer monsoon : 1971-2000
Keywords:Tropospheric temperatures over India, Temperature trends, Monsoon rainfall - Temperature links, ENSO and Indian temperatures
AbstractIn the context of the ever increasing interest in the regional aspects of global warming, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of tropospheric temperature over India is of great importance. The present study, based on the data from 19 well distributed radiosonde stations for the period 1971-2000, examines the seasonal and annual mean temperature variations at the surface and five selected upper levels, viz., 850, 700, 500, 200 and 150 hPa. An attempt has also been made to bring out the association between tropospheric temperature variations over India and the summer monsoon variability, including the role of its major teleconnection parameter, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
Seasonal and annual mean all-India temperature series are analyzed for surface and five tropospheric levels. The mean annual cycles of temperature at different tropospheric levels indicate that the pre-monsoon season is slightly warmer than the monsoon season at the surface, 850 hPa and 150 hPa levels, while it is relatively cooler at all intermediate levels. The mean annual temperature shows a warming of 0.18° C and 0.3° C per 10 years at the surface and 850 hPa, respectively.
Tropospheric temperature anomaly composites of excess (deficient) monsoon rainfall years show pronounced positive (negative) anomalies during the month of May, at all the levels. The pre-monsoon pressure of Darwin has significant positive correlation with the monsoon temperature at the surface and 850 hPa.
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